BIOGRAPHY OF GABRIELA MISTRAL
Gabriela Mistral. His real name was Lucila de María del Perpetual Socorro Godoy Alcayagaoeta. She Was a notable Chilean poet who, among other awards, reached the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, who later adopted the pseudonym of Gabriela Mistral, was born in Vicuña, a small town in the Elqui Valley (Chile), on April 6, 1889. Daughter of the school teacher Juan Jerónimo Godoy and The Dressmaker Petronila Alcayaga, her childhood runs between the villages of La Unión and Montegrande, where her mother moved after being definitively abandoned by her husband in 1892. The peasant songs, the bucolic atmosphere of a humble rural house located in the Elqui Valley and the teachings of her stepsister Emelina Molina Alcayaga are the main influences during those early years in which she discovers the reproductive nature with the that identifies: mountains, rivers, lush trees, fruits, birds and flowers of fantastic colors that will haunt your poetic world.
Abandoned by the father, this woman of unhealthy nature but strong will found from very early in the poetry how to barter in singing his suffering and his pain. He was only 11 years old when the unfair accusation that he had stolen the didactic material he had been ordered to do was stoned by his classmates from the Vicuña girls ‘ school. From There he retired to be educated by his stepsister, who knew how to orient his pedagogical training and feed with his example Gabriela’s teaching vocation. The presence of Emelina, 15 years older than her, joined to her grandmother Isabel Villanueva, who transmitted the knowledge of the Bible, will be the most influential family images in the life of the poet and later appear united in a unique and indissoluble memory : «The Teacher was pure.» The soft Gardeners ‘,/said, ‘ of this property, which is the property of Jesus/have to preserve pure eyes and hands,/keep clear their oils, to give clear Light ‘.
His First Publications
In his self-training process it is essential to contact the journalist Bernardo Ossandón, who allows him to freely access his magnificent library and to know the poetry of Federico Mistral, Russian novelists and the prose of Montaigne, and gives him his Orientation and its support until the moment that Gabriela publishes in the newspaper El Coquimbo its first articles and its first verses, with the name of Lucila Godoy.
In 1904 Lucila collaborated in the newspaper El Coquimbo de La Serena, using different pseudonyms, such as «someone «, «Soledad » and «Alma «, for his first published poems, such as daydreams, intimate letter and by the sea.
The titles chosen for his poems, as well as the pseudonyms with which he signed, expressed the solitary, introverted and romantic character of the young poetess.
Your «Pedagogical Gift»
To stay economically, Lucila was to work in different places. In Addition to writing his verses, he Pleaba as assistant professor at lyceums. At the age of 15 he began working at a High school in The Company, near Vicuña.
At The age of 16 he decides to follow the teacher’s career, asking for his admission to the Normal School of La Serena; But it is rejected because its ideas, which had appeared reflected in some newspaper articles, are considered atheist and counterproductive for the activity of a teacher destined to form children. Gabriela then claims her rights and endorses the voice of the Women of Chile by publishing in the voice of Elqui her article «The Instruction of women», in which she demands that all women have the right to education, and with which she gets her appointment.
As a teacher he toured Chile from north to south
From this moment he embarks on his work as a teacher, who takes her in a few years from the Elqui Valley to the southern region of La Araucanía and from there to the mountains that surround the city of Santiago in a voyage that allows him to capture in all its diversity the nature of his green Country and identify with the delivery and service to the humble through their teaching vocation: The Teacher was poor. His Kingdom is not human. /(Thus in the painful sower of Israel.) He Wore Brown Sayas, did not jewel his hand, and was all his spirit an immense Joyel! ‘
As A teacher he stood out quite quickly. Her enthusiasm, her fantasy and the ease of communication with her students would characterize her as a «pedagogical gift».
Love and death
The experiences of love and death mark in a more definitive way the soul of Gabriela; Had so His extreme reserve of personal affairs filled his life with mystery.
Only 20 years when the suicide of his boyfriend, the young railway RomelioUreta Carvajal, left an imprint of anguish and pain that would appear later reflected in his death sonnets: «I will lie in the sunny land with a/sweetness of mother for the Sleeping son/And the earth must be made softs of cradle/when receiving your body of sore child».
Later there would be other loves, like the one lived with the romantic poet Manuel Magallanes Moure, who was among the jury that awarded her in the Floral Games of Santiago in 1914, and to whom he directed a burning love correspondence in which he expresses his solitude and his Pain. From the recognition obtained in this contest begins in the life of Gabriela a fertile and creative stage: It publishes some poems in the magazine events and comes into contact with the poet Rubén Darío, who publishes in the magazine Elegances of Paris his poem «The Angel Guardian ‘ and the tale ‘ The Defense of Beauty ‘.
Continues to be perfected
In 1908 Lucila appeared in the anthology Coquimbana Literature of Carlos Soto Ayala. While writing, in 1910 he took a test at the Normal school in Santiago and was a primary teacher in Barrancas.
In 1912 he moved to the Liceo de Antofagasta, where he taught history and was also a general inspector. That same year it was named
Spanish inspector and teacher in the Liceo de Los Andes.
Gabriela Mistral Surge
His first great literary success outside the regional area occurred on December 12, 1914, when he obtained the highest distinction in the floral games of Santiago with his sonnets of death. Thereafter he began to use the pseudonym of Gabriela Mistral. He chose the name Gabriela by the Italian poet Gabriele D’Annunzio, which she admired at that time. And on the surname Mistral, there are different versions that explain: one, by the poet Federico Mistral; And another version points out that Mistral comes from the name of a Provençal wind.
The gradual success that began to surround her was tarnished with the sad death of her father in 1915. In 1917, 55 poems were published in Manuel Guzmán Maturana’s reading books.
He began to publish many of his compositions: The poems «The Rural Teacher», «Prayer for the Nest» and «redemption» appear in the Journal of National Education; It is also included in prestigious anthologies such as Chilean Poets, Selva Lyric, prepared by Julio Molina Núñez and Juan Agustín Araya. These first incursions in the letters will be later endorsed by a critic of the Spanish category Federico de Onís, who dictates a series of lectures on his work to Spanish and American professors at Columbia University and gets The Institute of the Americas of New York Publish in 1922 its first book, Desolation. His naked Verse, which opposes the aristocratizante poetry of Modernism, is, as Consuelo Triviño has pointed out, imbued with a pantheism in which American geography comes to occupy a sacred place and by means of which the poet, who An Iceberg.
It does not aspire to capture the beauty of things but the very essence of life, it begins to be known throughout the continent.
Thanks to the friendship developed between Gabriela Mistral and the marriage formed by Pedro Aguirre Cerda and Juana Rosa Aguirre, he, as Minister of Education, appointed her Spanish teacher and director of the Liceo de Punta Arenas in 1918.
In her verses she defines herself as an «iceberg.» His mood was reflected in the first part of Desolation (1922). His elusive, yet suspicious character, as well as his extreme reserve for personal affairs, filled his life with mystery.