BIOGRAPHY OF GUY DE MAUPASANT
According to the biography of Guy de Maupassant. French Writer considered as one of the great masters of the short story of the universal literature. Author of an extensive work between tales and novels, in general of naturalistic cut. It is worth noting: The House Tellier (1881); Tales of the Fool (1883); Miss Harriet (1884); among others.
He Was Born on August 5, 1850 in the bosom of a noble family, in the castle of Château de Miromesnil, District of Tourville-sur-Arques, according to the official version. There Seems to be some doubt about the place since it is possible that his parents invented this location whenever both aspired to the glory of a rather dubious nobility.
His father, Gustave Maupassant, was a descendant of a Lorenesa family established in Normandy since the EIGHTEENTH century. The surname Maupassant probably derived from mauvais passant. His wife Laura Le Poittevin was born in Rouen in 1821 and belonged to the Norman bourgeoisie. Laura and her brother Alfredo had been childhood friends of Gustave Flaubert, a decisive fact in the later career of Guy in the literary field. Laura married Gustave Maupassant in 1846.
Childhood and Youth
Guy’s childhood was saddened by the continual disputes between a dissolute and violent father and a neurotic mother. At The age of 12, he is under the tutelage of his mother in the face of the breakup of his parents ‘ marriage. In 1856 Hervé was born (both Guy and his younger brother, Hervé, inherited a disease of venereum origin that would lead both to madness and death). Hervé, an unstable man in every sense, was veiled almost all his life by Guy, until he is interned in a mental sanatorium, where he finally dies.
Although it came from a family of small freethinkers aristocrats, it received a religious education; In 1868 he provoked his expulsion from the seminary, in which he had entered at the age of thirteen, and the following year he began his law studies in Paris, interrupted by the Franco-Prussian War and which he would resume in 1871.
The Writer’s adolescence was conformed by these fertile contradictions and by the imperious presence of a mother who had just parted from her husband. Little by little, Flaubert will represent in the adolescent’s imagination and later, the writer, the role of father. It Was precisely the latter who corrected him the first poems and the first tales teaching him the art of writing.
The Youth of Maupassant was marked with two events that later extended in his writings, the first refers to his fleeting friendship with the English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, dark and morbid character, from whom inherits the material memory of a human hand Dissected. The second is his long stay at the Ecclesiastical Institute of Iveto, where confinement and strict discipline immerse him in serious depressive states.
In 1859 and 1860, he studied at the Liceo Napoleon, at the ecclesiastical College of Yvetot, where he was expelled, and finally at the high school in Rouen, where the young Maupassant maintained a epistolary relationship with Louis Bouilhet, Flaubert’s great friend.
He Was Sporting, he practiced canoeing and he was proud of his strength. He Used to say, «Inside the good animal we find the good man » His physical vigor was incredible and he assured that after a day of canoeing on the Seine, he could still paddle the whole night. He Was attracted to violent exercises even when He carried the worst part.
In 1876 and thanks to the sponsorship of Flaubert, Maupassant begins to collaborate in various newspapers and magazines under the pseudonym of Guy de Valmont. It Is made to build a house where some of the plays that it wrote in this epoch were privately represented.
In 1879, his father succeeded in entering the Ministry of Public Instruction, which he soon left to devote himself to literature, on the advice of his great master and friend Gustave Flaubert. He introduced him to the circle of writers of the time, such as Émile Zola, Ivan Turguéniev, Edmond de Goncourt and Henry James.
On The night of January 1, 1892, he tried three times to open his throat with a metal penknife. His friends and the faithful Françoise Tassart, moved him to Paris; There he was interned on 7 January at Dr. Blanche’s clinic, where he would die after eighteen months, on July 6, 1893 of a general paralysis, at 42 years of age.
During the Franco-Prussian War
Maupassant was called to arms and was involved in the Franco-Prussian War. After his return to civilian life, in 1872, he worked as an employee at the Ministry of the Navy, where he remained until 1878, and then in the Ministry of Public Instruction, between 1878 and 1880. The Life of the dark official and the Kafkaesque atmosphere of the ministry will inspire him one of his masterpieces: L’Heritage.
Since He was young he belonged to the literary group that had as center the renowned novelist Gustave Flaubert, of whom he was close friend, and of whom he received his literary formation.
His first success, appeared a month before the death of Flaubert, was the famous tale Ball of Tallow, collected in the collective volume Las Noches de Medan (1880), a tale considered one of the best in its genre, consists of a kind of manifesto of naturalism , which brought together tales of the War of 1870 written by several writers who constituted the so-called Médan Group, directed by Emile Zola. The same year he published his book of poems, Verses.
Curiously, almost nobody had intuited the genius of Maupassant; Zola told Frank Harris that at the time of The evenings of Médan no one expected anything from him.
This is described by his friend Frank Harris when he met him in 1881:
«Maupassant didn’t look like a great man. Scarcely of average stature, it was robustísimo and handsome; The tall, square forehead, the Greek profile, the strong, unhardened jaw, the deeply sunken grey-bluish eyes, the almost black moustache and hair. He Had Perfect Manners, but at first He seemed reserved and little prone to speak of himself or his works… »
His First Works
His works are written in a simple style, where it is transmitted with realism the sordid and cruel of the human essence.
In 1881 saw the light its first volume of stories, The House Tellier (The maison Tellier), followed by Mademoiselle Fifi in 1882) and then by novels of great success: A Life (Une vie, 1883), delicate narrative plot centered on a feminine aspect of Flaubertiana ancestry, and Bel Ami (1885), which exploits the issue of social careerism through journalism and women to politically condemn the world of high finance speculator and colonialist.
The success achieved with his first works allowed him not only to live off the pen, but also to realize his dreams: the luxury, the inexhaustible activity of amatory, the long and solitary voyages by sea in his yacht Bel Ami and the entry in the good Society of Cannes and of Paris , where he earned a reputation as a seductive inveterate.
With the publication of Mademoiselle Fifi, Maupassant becomes the fashion writer, what we would call today an author of best-sellers, and his royalties provide him very good income, and, in the turn of a few years, a real fortune. They Are also years of frequent travel, Italy, Africa, England…
In 1888 publishes «Pierre et Jean «, psychological analysis of a couple of brothers suddenly divided by an inheritance and by the discovery of their adulterous origin.
In 1889 appeared «Strong as Death «. Meanwhile, an uninterrupted production of narratives had been going on, in which the stylistic acumen of Maupassant was best (apart from the aforementioned collections, they deserve to be remembered: Miss Harriet, 1884; The sisters Rondoli, 1884; Moonlight, 1884; Tonio, 1885; Tales of the Day and night, 1885; Monsierur Parent; 1886; The Horla, 1887; The left hand, 1889; Our Heart, 1890.