BIOGRAPHY OF ITALO CALVINO
Italo Calvin. One of the most important Italian writers of the TWENTIETH century. His literature, of great formal delicacy, shares realistic and fantastic rebends, developed from an ironic stance.
He Was Born on October 15, 1923 in Santiago de las Vegas,Cuba. Son of the botanist and agronomist Mario Calvino, who directed an experimental station of Agronomy and the professor of Botany EvelinaMarnelli, of Sardinian origin, degree in Natural Sciences.
In 1925 the family moved to Italy two years after conceiving their son. Located in San Remo, they had a second son, Floriano, who eventually became an important biologist.
Childhood and Youth
During his childhood he received a secular and anti-fascist education, according to the attitude of his parents who considered themselves freethinkers. He Studied at the Cassinis Higher Middle School in San Remo, where one of his companions is the future director of «República «, Eugenio Scalfari. In San Remo, where he spent most of his childhood, he began his studies at the Faculty of Agronomy of the University of Turin and then in Florence, to follow the same studies as his father, but soon he abandoned them because of the war.
Called to ranks at the beginning of the Second World War, he did not join, going underground and joining the Garibaldi Brigades, a partisan communist group, along with his brother, while his parents were held hostage to the Germans, during Which he fought as a partisan against fascism. His experiences are embodied in one of the masterpieces of the Narrative of Resistance: The path of the Spider’s Nests (1947). He also collaborated in publications such as «L’Unita «, «Il politecnico » or «Rinascita «. In 1944 the Italian Communist Party was joined.
He Resumed his studies in Turin, abandoning them to study Letters, graduating in the year 1947 with a thesis on the writer Joseph Conrad. It Was during this period of his life that he came into contact with Cesare Pavese, who was hired by the editorial Einaudi, where he came into contact with left-wing intellectuals, publishing his first novel in 1947, and since then continued his career Literary. Successively, he collaborates with several newspapers and magazines and also works as editorial advisor; In addition, it carries out several stays in France.
Politically committed to the Italian Communist Party (PCI), a political option that ended in 1957 because of its discrepancies with its totalitarian approaches, and following the events of Hungary; To the immobility of the PCI to these events, dedicates the fierce apologue of «The Great Bonanza of the Antilles», published in 1957 in «Città aperta «.
After This literary beginning of realistic tendency, he underwent a transformation that led him to compose in 1958 a series of stories in which he combined in his narratives a symbolic and fantastic character and a singular irony.
After Publishing some anthologies of Tales, of type Fabulístico, with which it moved away from the realist writing of its beginnings, it wrote the trilogy, formed three novels: Our ancestors, composed of The Viscount Demediated, (1952) It was proposed to analyze and Denounce the contemporary reality, as well as the loneliness and fear implicit in the human condition; The Baron Rampant (1957), perhaps the most famous, fruit of the ideological disappointment of the author who, after the Invasion of Hungary by the USSR (1956), had abandoned the PCI; and The non-existent gentleman, fantastic and poetic narration, full of wonderful elements, in which he posed the role of the politically committed writer. They are All works in which he showed his conscience of living in a world in which the simplest individuality of the people is denied, reduced to a series of preestablished behaviors.
Notable was also his interest in the problems of contemporary industrial society and urban alienation, which was embodied in another kind of trilogy composed of real estate speculation (1957), The Smog Cloud (1958) and The Day of an auditor Electoral (1963). Thanks to his work as a literary critic in the magazine Il Menabo, which he cooperated with Elio Vittorini, he came into contact with the work of Raymond Queneau and the French experimental group Oulipo, whose literary approaches, based on the formal game and the combination of Possible forms and structures, approached progressively.
He moved to Paris, increasing his interest in the Natural Sciences and Sociology and came into contact with the Oulipo, «Ouvroir de Litterature Potentielle » (Workshop on Potential Literature). He Came into contact with the Oulipo group. He Marched on to Rome, continuing with scripture until his death.
Trip to Cuba
In 1964 he made a trip to Cuba that allowed him to visit the house where he had lived with his parents and perform various meetings, one of which was with Ernesto Che Guevara.
On February 19, in Havana, she married Argentina’s Esther Judit Singer, Chichita. Together they went to live in Rome, where their daughter Giovanna would be born a year later.
Ïtalo Calvin suffered a stroke. He was Admitted to the hospital in Siena and died on September 19, 1985, at the age of 61 years. He Was working on a series of lectures that he had to teach at Harvard University (and that would be published posthumously in the Italian language with the title of Lezioni Americane and in Spanish as Six proposals for the next millennium). Posthumously also published, among other books: Sotto il sole Giaguaro, La strada di San Giovanni and Prima che your prompt.
Finally, The Crow (1949)
The Ant Argentina ((1952)
Avant-garde Ones in Menton (Gli avanguardisti a Mentone, (1953-1955) * Italian folk Tales (1956)
Tales (Racconti, 1958, anthology), in 1959 receives by this work, the prize Bagutta.
The Camino de San Giovanni (1962), in this story traces the portrayal of his father, deceased in 1951.
Marcovaldo (Marcovaldo (1963)
Cosmicómicas (Le Cosmicomiche, (1965)
Zero Time (Ti with Zero, 1967).