BIOGRAPHY OF PABLO NERUDA
Disseminated in thousands of verses has remained for posterity the biography, intimate and public, secret and militant, the great Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. He also bequeathed to Us the chronicle of his hectic days and travelers in a lyrical memoirs titled I Confess that I have lived, and on his figure have written many friends of the writer, his passionate widow Matilde Urrutia and hundreds of critics and historians. The overwhelming personality of this man of Communist creed, resolved and stubborn to sacrifice for all that he believed in, bursts into his work with a vital breath that barely reveals the many tribulations and the many gloomy hours that had to pass through.
For Some who knew him, especially those who shared with him the struggle against the misery and oppression of the peoples, Pablo Neruda enjoyed the exceptional charisma of those chosen who fit as a glove the word exemplary; But for most readers who did not enjoy the fortune of his embrace, the poet will always be that shy, invisible and crouching character that was hidden behind the horizontal and dim bars of his beautiful songs of Love.
Born in 1904 in Parral with the name of Ricardo Eliecer Naphtali Reyes Basoalto, Neruda felt throughout his life deeply rooted in his Chilean land despite having led a tireless traveler existence. His mother, Rosa Basoalto, died of tuberculosis shortly after giving birth, and his father, driver of a train that was carrying stone, José del Carmen Reyes Morales, married two years later with Trinidad Changes Marverde, of whom Neruda would write: «She Was a sweet and diligent woman , had a peasant sense of humour and an active and indefatigable kindness. » For the little Naphtali was his new mother as the good fairy; Teuteló the boy with an even greater request than his real father, with whom, in his adolescence, he would soon keep serious disputes.
Residing in Temuco, he entered the Lyceum of the city in 1910, and when he had not left this institution on July 18, 1917, he was able to read excitedly in a local newspaper, The Morning, the first of his published articles, which titled «Enthusiasm and Perseverance «. By then he had been fortunate enough to meet an imposing lady, «Alta, with very long dresses», which was not another but the famous poet Gabriela Mistral, who had given him some books of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Chekhov, decisive in his first formation Literary.
However, his father openly opposed him to follow this vocation, so that when on November 28, 1920 he won the prize of the Spring Festival of Temuco, the young poet already signed his poems with pseudonym, a ruse to disorient his parent. The chosen name, Neruda, had been found by chance in a magazine and was of Czech origin; He did not know that he was usurping a colleague, a distant writer who composed beautiful ballads and has a monument erected in the Mala Strana district of Prague.
When He finishes his studies at the Liceo he goes to Santiago to follow the career of French teacher at the Pedagogical Institute, but he continues to prepare books of verses. Soon it is linked to the magazine Youth of the Federation of Students, where it takes contact with the anarchist movement and in particular with one of the leaders of the group, formidable and courageous, called Juan Gandulfo. In 1922, having locked a good friendship, which would reveal fruitful and lasting, with the director of the magazine Clarity, joins his writing, and thus begins to write as a poser up to five poems a day. The following year he published his first book of poems, Crepusculario, at his expense.
To be able To pay For this publication, Pablo Neruda, by then a young man eager for readings and life, extravagant and thin, dressed in the NINETEENTH century bohemian poet in a black suit, must sell his furniture, pawn the clock that has given his father and receive the help in E Xtremis a generous critic. The latter, a certain allone, was lent to repay the debt when the publisher refused to deliver a single copy before the bill was fully satisfied.
Crepusculario was in fact a miscellany of other projects, a hasty rearrangement of poems that immediately left the author unsatisfied. Since then Neruda gave himself, with more zeal if possible, to the preparation of another book, this one Yes, organic and much more personal, that would end up being published in 1924 with the title Twenty Poems of Love and a song desperate.
From this time on, the politicization of Pablo Neruda’s poetry will be progressively greater and, in parallel, his life will be faced with adverse economic circumstances. At the moment, when he left his studies, his father removed all material help, so he embraced the hope of getting some diplomatic office. However, all you get in 1927 is a dark and remote consular destination in Rangoon, Burma.
There, in those fantastic lands, «Between men who love the cobra and the cow», Pablo Neruda met the as beautiful as dangerous Josie Bliss, a native who nevertheless wore the English way. After visiting in his company the most exotic corners of those lands, moved to live home to her, but soon the girl turneded her sweetness in jealousy, and the life of the couple became intolerable. «She Felt tenderness towards her bare feet,» wrote the writer, but also told how Josie hid her letters and how, on one occasion, she woke up startled and found her dressed in white, on the other side of the mosquito net, dark, brandishing a knife Deadly and unresolved to strike the fatal blow: «When you die, my fears will end,» The sick woman stammered bitterly.
Third Nobel Prize-winning Latin writer
In 1971, Pablo Neruda became the third Latin American writer and the second Chilean to obtain the Nobel Prize in Literature, but his literary rise did not prevent him from continuing actively in the defense of Chilean interests. In New York, taking advantage of the Pen Club meeting, he denounced the US blockade against Chile. After renouncing his position as ambassador in France, he returned to Santiago, where he was public and Multitudinariamente honored at the National Stadium.
ON the cusp of fame and recognition were also waiting for bitter hours. In 1973, on September 11th, he was surprised by Augusto Pinochet’s military coup against President Salvador Allende. Deeply affected by the new situation, he was unable to resist the tragedy and on 23 September he died in Santiago. The World soon found out, between indignation, stupor and impotence, that their houses in Valparaiso and Santiago had been brutally looted and destroyed. Their Funerals developed in the midst of a great political tension. After his death they saw the light the poems which he had written before dying: Winter Garden, 2000, The Yellow Heart, Book of the questions, Elegy and chosen Defects, all of them edited by Losada in Buenos Aires in 1974. In Barcelona appeared his last work, the autobiography Confess that I have lived.